Proofreading - definition of proofreading by The Free Dictionary


definition proofreading

Aug 11,  · Proofread definition, to read (printers' proofs, copy, etc.) in order to detect and mark errors to be corrected. See more. proofreading definition: 1. the process of finding and correcting mistakes in text before it is printed or put online: 2. the act of finding and correcting mistakes in copies of printed text before the final copies are printed. Learn more. proofreading meaning: 1. the process of finding and correcting mistakes in text before it is printed or put online: 2. the act of finding and correcting mistakes in copies of printed text before the final copies are printed. Learn more.

Proofread | Definition of Proofread at

Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art. A proof is a typeset version of copy or a manuscript page. They often contain typos introduced through human error. Traditionally, a proofreader looks at an increment of text on the copy and then compares it to the corresponding typeset increment, and then marks any errors sometimes called 'line edits' using standard proofreaders' marks.

Proofs are then returned to the typesetter for correction, definition proofreading. Correction-cycle proofs will typically have one descriptive term, such as 'bounce', 'bump', definition proofreading, or 'revise' unique to the department or organization and used for clarity to the strict exclusion of any other. It is a common practice for 'all' such corrections, no matter how slight, to be sent again to definition proofreading proofreader to be checked and initialed, thus establishing the principle of higher responsibility for proofreaders as compared to their typesetters or artists.

The first reads the text aloud literally definition proofreading it appears, definition proofreading at a comparatively fast but uniform rate. The second reader follows along and marks any pertinent differences between what is read and what was typeset. This method is appropriate for large quantities of boilerplate text where it is assumed that the number of errors will be comparatively small. Experienced copy holders employ various codes and verbal short-cuts that accompany their reading, definition proofreading.

The spoken word 'digits', for example, means that the definition proofreading about to be read are not words spelled out; and 'in a hole' can mean that the upcoming segment of text is within parentheses. A 'thump' or 'screamer' made with a finger on the table represents the initial capcommadefinition proofreadingor similar obvious attribute being read simultaneously.

Thus the line of text He said the address was Central Blvd. Mutual understanding is the only guiding principle, so codes evolve as opportunity permits. In the above example, two thumps after 'buluhvuhd' might be acceptable to proofreaders familiar with the text. A single proofreader checks a proof in the traditional manner but then passes it on to a second reader who repeats the definition proofreading. Both initial the proof.

Note that with both copy holding and double reading, responsibility for a given proof is necessarily shared by two individuals, definition proofreading. Many publishers have their own proprietary typesetting systems, [3] while their customers use commercial programs such as Word. Before the data in a Word file can be published, it must be converted into a format used by the publisher.

The end product is usually called a conversion. If a customer has already proofread the contents of a file before submitting it to a publisher, there will be no reason for another proofreader to re-read it from the copy although this additional service may be requested and paid for.

Instead, the publisher is held responsible only for formatting errors, such as typeface, page width, and alignment of columns in tables ; and production errors such as text inadvertently deleted. To simplify matters further, definition proofreading, a given conversion will usually be assigned a specific template. Given typesetters of sufficient skill, experienced proofreaders familiar with their typesetters' work can accurately scan their pages without reading the text for errors that neither they nor their typesetters are responsible for.

Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication. Before it is typeset, copy is often marked up by an editor or customer with various instructions as to typefaces, art, and layout, definition proofreading.

Often these individuals will consult a style guide of varying degrees of complexity and completeness. Such guides are usually produced in-house by the staff or supplied by the customer, and should be distinguished from professional references such as The Chicago Manual of Stylethe AP StylebookThe Elements of Styleor Gregg Reference Manual.

When appropriate, definition proofreading, proofreaders may mark errors in accordance with their house guide instead of the copy when the two conflict, definition proofreading. Where this is the case, the proofreader may justifiably be considered a copy editor. Checklists are commonly employed in proof-rooms where there is sufficient uniformity of product to distill some or all of its components to a list format, definition proofreading.

They may also act as a training tool for new hires. Checklists are never comprehensive, however: proofreaders still have to find all errors not mentioned or described on them, thus limiting their usefulness. The educational level of proofreaders, in general, is on a par with that of their co-workers.

Typesetters, graphic artists, and word processors definition proofreading need to have a college degreeand a perusal of online job listings for proofreaders will show that although listings may specify a degree for proofreaders, many do not. Experience is discounted at the outset in preference to a credential, indicating a relatively low starting wage appropriate for younger applicants, definition proofreading. In these kinds of multitasking desktop-publishing environments, definition proofreading, human resources departments may even classify proofreading as a clerical skill generic to literacy itself.

Where this occurs, definition proofreading, it is definition proofreading unusual for proofreaders to find themselves guaranteeing the accuracy of higher-paid co-workers. In contrast, printerspublishersadvertising agencies and law firms tend not to require a degree specifically. In these professionally demanding single-tasking environments, the educational divide surrounds the production department instead of the company itself.

Promotion is rare for these proofreaders because they tend to be valued more for their present skill set than for any potential leadership ability. They are often supervised by a typesetter also without a degree, or by an administrative manager with little or no production experience who delegates day-to-day responsibilities to a typesetter. Although many commercial and college-level proofreading courses of definition proofreading quality can be found online, definition proofreading, practical job training for proofreaders has declined along with its status as a craft.

Numerous books are also available that instruct the basics to their readers. Such tools of self-preparation have by and large replaced formal workplace instruction. Proofreader applicants are tested primarily on their spellingdefinition proofreading, speed, and skill in finding errors in the sample text. Toward that end, they may be given a list of ten or twenty classically difficult words and a proofreading test, both tightly timed. The proofreading test will often have a maximum number of errors per quantity definition proofreading text and a definition proofreading amount of time to find them.

The goal of this approach is to identify those with the best definition proofreading set. A contrasting approach to testing is to identify and reward persistence more than an arbitrarily high level of expertise.

For the spelling portion of the test, that can be accomplished by providing a dictionary, lengthening the word list conspicuously, definition proofreading, and making clear that the test is not timed, definition proofreading. For the proofreading portion, a suitable language-usage reference book e. Note that knowing where to find needed information in such specialized books is itself an effective component of the test.

Removing the pressure of what is essentially an ASAP deadline will identify those applicants with marginally greater reservoirs of persistence, stamina, and commitment. At the same time, definition proofreading, by mooting the need for applicants to make use of a memorized list of difficult words definition proofreading a studied knowledge of the more common grammatical traps affect, effect, lay, lieapplicants learn that their success depends primarily on a quality at least theoretically available to anyone at any time without preparation.

Formal employee testing is usually planned and announced well in advance, and may have titles, definition proofreading, such as Levels TestingSkills Evaluationdefinition proofreading, etc.

They are found in corporate definition proofreading governmental environments with a large enough HR staff to devote to preparing and administering the tests.

Informal employee testing takes place whenever a manager feels the need to take a random sampling of a proofreader's work by double-reading selected pages. Usually, this is done without warning, and sometimes it definition proofreading be done secretly.

It can be highly effective, and there will certainly be times when such re-reading is justified, but care must be taken. There are two basic approaches. The first is to re-read a proof within its deadline and definition proofreading the department itself.

Thus the manager will read from the same copy that the first reader saw, and be aware of any volume and deadline pressures the first reader definition proofreading under, and can directly observe the individual in real time, definition proofreading.

This approach can also be followed as definition proofreading matter of routine. The goal then is not to confirm a specific suspicion of poor job performance by a particular reader, but rather to confirm a general definition proofreading that the proofreading definition proofreading needs ongoing monitoring. The second approach to informal testing is to wait for some days or weeks and then, as time allows, randomly select proofs to re-read while outside the department.

Such proofs may or may not be accompanied by the copy pages that the proofreader saw. Here the re-reader is examining the proof from the perspective of typographical and formatting accuracy alone, ignoring how many other pages the first reader had read that day, and had yet to read, and how many pages were successfully read and how many deadlines were met under a given day's specific conditions.

Proofreading cannot be fully cost-effective where volume or unpredictable workflow prevents proofreaders from managing their own time. Examples are newspapersthermographic trade printing of business cardsand network hubs. The problem in each of these environments is that jobs cannot be put aside to be re-read as needed.

In the first two cases, volumes and deadlines dictate that all jobs be finished as soon as possible; in the third case, definition proofreading, jobs presently on-site at the hub are hurried, regardless of their formal definition proofreading, in favor of possible future work that may arrive unpredictably. Where proofs can programmatically [ clarification needed ] be read only once, definition proofreading, the quality will randomly but persistently fall below expectations.

Even the best and most experienced readers will definition proofreading be able to be consistently accurate enough to justify premium pay, definition proofreading. Production technology can also moot the need to pay a premium for proofreading, definition proofreading.

In the example of thermographic business-card printing, even when there are no reprints, there is considerable wastage of paper and ink in preparing each of the press runs, which are separated by color. When as often happens there is unused space available on the platethere is no increase in production cost for reprints that use that space.

Only when reprints are so numerous that they push production staff into significant overtime would they increase costs. But significant overtime is definition proofreading the result of a high volume in new orders using up the eight-hour day. In such industries proofreading need only — and can only — make a marginal difference to be cost-effective.

As for the customers, many will never return even when their jobs are perfect, and enough of those who do need a reprint will find the retailer's cost-saving price to be satisfactory enough to tolerate a late delivery.

Only where workload volume does not compress all deadlines to ASAP and the workflow is reasonably predictable can proofreading be worth a premium wage, definition proofreading. Inflexible deadlines mandate a delivery time, definition proofreading, but in doing so they necessarily do not mandate delivery before that time. If deadlines are consistently maintained instead of arbitrarily moved up, proofreaders can manage their own time by putting proofs aside at their own discretion for re-reading later.

Whether the interval is a few seconds or overnight, it enables proofs to be viewed as both familiar and new. Where this procedure is followed, managers can expect consistently superior performance. However, re-reading focuses responsibility instead of dividing it as double-reading and copy holding, both described above, definition proofreading, do and obviously requires extra effort from proofreaders and a measure of independence from management.

Instead of managers controlling deadlines, definition proofreading, deadlines control managers, and leeway is passed to the proofreaders as well as commensurate pay. The term proofreading is sometimes used to refer to copy-editing, and vice versa.

Although there is necessarily some overlap, proofreaders typically lack any real editorial or managerial authority. What they can do is mark queries for typesetters, definition proofreading, editors, or authors, definition proofreading.

To clarify matters at the outset, some advertised vacancies come with a notice that the job advertised is not a writing or editing position and will not become one. Creativity and critical thinking by their very nature conflict with the strict copy- following discipline that commercial and governmental proofreading requires. Thus proofreading and editing are fundamentally separate responsibilities.

In contrast, copy editors focus on a sentence-by-sentence analysis of the text to "clean it up" by improving grammar, spelling, punctuation, syntax, and structure, definition proofreading. The copy editor is usually the last editor that an author will work with. Copy editing focuses intensely on style, content, punctuation, grammardefinition proofreading consistency of usage.


Proofread | Definition of Proofread by Merriam-Webster


definition proofreading


Proofread definition is - to read and mark corrections in (something, such as a proof). How to use proofread in a sentence. Graduate," 8 July In the room were three linguists on each language team, two translating and a third proofreading a message sent by . Aug 11,  · Proofread definition, to read (printers' proofs, copy, etc.) in order to detect and mark errors to be corrected. See more. proofreading meaning: 1. the process of finding and correcting mistakes in text before it is printed or put online: 2. the act of finding and correcting mistakes in copies of printed text before the final copies are printed. Learn more.